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Digital Sketches

digital citizen media, ict with a focus on Central Asia and the Middle East.

`This year Ruhnama, which stands for Treatise of Spirituality, will be taught not as a separate course but together with other courses on history, political science, economics and Turkmen renaissance.

Published in 2001, Ruhnama was the main ideological product and a basis of political propaganda under the first president Saparmurat Niyazov. Ruhnama was considered a source of universal knowledge and gained the title “holy”.’

Mandatory course on the “Holy Ruhnama”, a philosophical and historic book of the first president Saparmurat Niyazov, is abolished from 1 September, in all universities in Turkmenistan according to the newsagency


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